100+ things you need to know about the coffee world

Coffee can be as simple or as complicated as you like.  Here are at least 100 things you might want to know about coffee.



Arabica Coffee

Arabica coffee refers to the species of coffee plant known for producing high-quality, flavourful beans. It is considered the superior and more desirable species in the specialty coffee industry.

Robusta Coffee

Robusta coffee is another species of coffee plant known for its higher caffeine content and robust flavour. It is often used in blends and instant coffee due to its lower cost and higher resistance to diseases.

Specialty Coffee

Specialty coffee refers to coffee that has been graded and scored based on its quality, taste, and other criteria by certified professionals. It represents the highest standard of coffee in terms of flavour and cultivation.

Single Origin Coffee

Single origin coffee refers to coffee beans that come from a specific region or farm, allowing for traceability and highlighting the unique characteristics of that particular origin.

Direct Trade

Direct trade is a sourcing method in which coffee roasters establish direct relationships with coffee farmers, bypassing intermediaries. It emphasizes transparency, fair prices, and mutually beneficial partnerships.

Fair Trade Coffee

Fair trade coffee is coffee that has been certified to meet certain social, economic, and environmental standards. It ensures that farmers receive fair prices and work in better conditions, promoting sustainability.

Organic Coffee

Organic coffee is coffee that has been grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It adheres to organic farming principles and is often certified as such.

Shade-Grown Coffee

Shade-grown coffee is cultivated under a canopy of trees, providing a more natural environment for the coffee plants. It promotes biodiversity, protects habitats, and can enhance the flavour profile of the coffee.


Cupping is a professional tasting method used to evaluate and assess the aroma, taste, and quality of coffee. It involves slurping the coffee from a spoon and evaluating its various attributes.

Tasting Coffee

Coffee tasting refers to the sensory evaluation of coffee, assessing its flavour, acidity, body, aroma, and other characteristics. It involves using the tongue, nose, and palate to discern and appreciate the coffee's nuances.

Coffee Roasting

Coffee roasting is the process of applying heat to green coffee beans, transforming them into the aromatic and flavourful brown beans we use for brewing. Different roast levels produce distinct flavour profiles.

Grading coffee

Coffee grading is the assessment and classification of coffee beans based on their size, colour, defects, and other quality attributes. It helps determine the market value and potential use of the coffee.

Sourcing coffee

Coffee sourcing refers to the process of finding and selecting coffee beans from various origins. It involves evaluating the quality, sustainability, and ethical practices associated with the coffee supply chain.

Coffee Farming

Coffee farming encompasses the cultivation and management of coffee plants. It includes tasks such as planting, nurturing, pruning, and harvesting coffee cherries. It requires knowledge of agronomy and agricultural practices.

Coffee Varieties

Coffee varieties refer to different species, subspecies, or cultivated types of coffee plants. Examples include Typica, Bourbon, Caturra, and Geisha. Each variety has its own unique characteristics and flavour profiles.


Coffee terroir refers to the combination of environmental factors, such as soil, climate, altitude, and growing conditions, which influence the flavour and quality of coffee beans from a specific geographic region.


Coffee cultivation involves the process of growing and managing coffee plants, including planting, fertilizing, pruning, disease prevention, and other practices necessary for optimal plant growth and coffee production.

Harvesting Coffee

Coffee harvesting is the labour-intensive process of selectively picking ripe coffee cherries from the coffee plants. It requires skilled labour and timing to ensure the cherries are picked at their peak ripeness.

Coffee Processing

Coffee processing refers to the methods used to remove the coffee cherries' outer layers and extract the beans. Different processing methods, such as wet, dry, and semi-washed, impact the coffee's flavour and characteristics.

Wet Processing Method

Wet processing is a method of coffee processing where the coffee cherries are depulped, fermented, and washed to remove the pulp before drying the beans. It often results in cleaner, brighter flavours in the coffee.

Dry Processing Method

Dry processing, also known as natural processing, involves drying the coffee cherries with their pulp intact. The cherries are dried under the sun until the pulp shrinks, resulting in a fruity and full-bodied flavour profile.

Semi-Washed Processing

Semi-washed processing, also known as pulped natural or honey processing, combines elements of both wet and dry processing. It removes the outer skin and some pulp but retains some of the mucilage during drying.

Honey Processing Method

Honey processing is a method where the coffee cherries' skin and pulp are removed, leaving behind a sticky, honey-like layer of mucilage. The beans are then dried, resulting in a sweet and nuanced flavour profile.

Natural Processing Method

Natural processing, also known as dry processing, involves drying the coffee cherries with their pulp intact. The cherries are dried under the sun until the pulp shrinks, resulting in a fruity and full-bodied flavour profile.

Pulped Natural Processing

Pulped natural processing, also known as semi-washed processing or honey processing, removes the outer skin and some pulp but retains some of the mucilage during drying. It offers a balance between wet and dry processing.

Fermentation in Coffee Processing

Fermentation is a crucial step in some coffee processing methods. It involves allowing the coffee beans to ferment in their own natural sugars and enzymes, contributing to the development of unique flavours and aromas.


Depulping is the process of removing the outer skin and pulp from the coffee cherries after harvesting. It is typically done using mechanical pulpers or other methods to separate the coffee beans from the fruit.

Parchment Coffee

Parchment coffee refers to coffee beans that have had their outer layers removed but still have a thin, parchment-like husk attached. These beans are dried further to reduce moisture content and prepare them for storage.

Green Coffee

Green coffee refers to raw, unroasted coffee beans that have been processed and are ready for roasting. They have a greenish colour and require roasting to develop the flavours and aromas associated with coffee.

Roast Levels

Coffee roast levels refer to the degree of roasting applied to coffee beans, impacting their flavour, aroma, and body. Light, medium, dark, and espresso roast levels offer different taste profiles and brewing characteristics.

Light Roast Coffee

Light roast coffee is roasted for a shorter duration, preserving the beans' original flavours and acidity. It has a light brown colour, floral and fruity notes, and a higher caffeine content compared to darker roasts.

Medium Roast Coffee

Medium roast coffee is roasted to a medium brown colour, striking a balance between the beans' original flavours and the development of roast flavours. It offers a well-rounded taste, moderate acidity, and medium body.

Dark Roast Coffee

Dark roast coffee is roasted for a longer duration, resulting in dark brown or almost black beans. It features bold, smoky flavours, lower acidity, and a fuller body, with roast flavours dominating the coffee's characteristics.

Espresso Roast

Espresso roast refers to a specific roast level optimized for espresso brewing. It is typically darker than medium roast and brings out rich, bittersweet flavours that can cut through milk and create a strong espresso shot.

Coffee Blending

Coffee blending is the art of combining different coffee beans, often from various origins or roast levels, to create unique flavour profiles and achieve a desired taste. Blends can balance acidity, body, and complexity.

Single-Origin Espresso

Single-origin espresso refers to espresso made exclusively from coffee beans sourced from a single origin. It allows the unique characteristics of that specific region or farm to shine through in the espresso shot.

Pour-Over Brewing

Pour-over brewing is a manual brewing method that involves pouring hot water over coffee grounds in a filter, allowing the water to drip through into a carafe or cup. It offers control over brewing variables and produces a clean, bright cup of coffee.

French Press Brewing

French press brewing, also known as press pot or plunger brewing, involves steeping coffee grounds in hot water and separating them by pressing a mesh plunger. It produces a rich, full-bodied coffee with pronounced flavours.

AeroPress Brewing

AeroPress brewing is a versatile and portable brewing method that uses air pressure to extract coffee flavours. It involves steeping coffee grounds in water and then pressing the mixture through a filter using a plunger.

Cold Brew Coffee

Cold brew coffee is made by steeping coffee grounds in cold or room temperature water for an extended period, typically 12 to 24 hours. The result is a smooth, low-acidity coffee concentrate that is served over ice or diluted.

Siphon Brewing

Siphon brewing, also known as vacuum brewing, uses a combination of vapor pressure and gravity to brew coffee. It involves heating water in a lower chamber, creating pressure to push water upward into an upper chamber with coffee grounds.

Chemex Brewing

Chemex brewing utilizes a pour-over method using a Chemex coffee maker, which features a glass vessel and a specially designed filter. It produces a clean, sediment-free coffee with a delicate and nuanced flavour profile.

Moka Pot Brewing

Moka pot brewing is a stovetop method that uses steam pressure to extract coffee. It consists of a lower chamber for water, an upper chamber for coffee grounds, and a metal filter. It creates a strong, concentrated coffee similar to espresso.

Turkish Coffee

Turkish coffee is a traditional method of brewing coffee where finely ground coffee is boiled with water and often sweetened with sugar. It is typically served unfiltered and has a rich, strong flavour and a thick, frothy texture.

Espresso Brewing

Espresso brewing is a method that uses high-pressure water to force hot water through tightly packed coffee grounds. It results in a concentrated shot of coffee with a rich flavour, full body, and a layer of crema on top.

Espresso Machine

An espresso machine is a specialized coffee machine designed to brew espresso by forcing hot water under pressure through coffee grounds. It allows for precise control over brewing variables and is a staple in cafes and coffee shops.

Espresso Shot

An espresso shot is a single serving of espresso extracted from an espresso machine. It is a concentrated, highly aromatic, and flavourful coffee with a characteristic layer of crema on top, used as a base for various espresso-based drinks.

Latte Art

Latte art refers to the practice of creating designs or patterns on the surface of espresso-based drinks, such as lattes or cappuccinos, using steamed milk. It showcases the barista's skill and adds an aesthetic element to the drink.


Cappuccino is an espresso-based drink made with equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and milk foam. It has a smooth and velvety texture, with the espresso flavour balanced by the creamy milk and a dusting of cocoa or cinnamon on top.

Flat White

Flat white is a popular espresso-based drink originating from Australia or New Zealand. It consists of a double shot of espresso combined with velvety steamed milk, resulting in a creamy and rich beverage with a strong coffee flavour.


Macchiato, meaning "stained" or "marked" in Italian, is an espresso-based drink with a small amount of milk or foam "staining" the espresso shot. It provides a bolder coffee flavour with a hint of milk, served in a smaller-sized cup.


Americano is a coffee drink made by diluting espresso with hot water, creating a beverage similar in strength to drip brewed coffee. It offers a milder flavour profile than straight espresso and is often enjoyed with milk or sweeteners.


Affogato is a simple and indulgent dessert-like treat made by pouring a shot of hot espresso over a scoop of vanilla ice cream or gelato. The hot espresso melts the ice cream, creating a delightful combination of hot and cold flavours.

Coffee Brewing Ratios

Coffee brewing ratios refer to the ratio of coffee grounds to water used when brewing coffee. Different ratios can affect the strength, flavour, and extraction of the brewed coffee, allowing customization to personal preferences.

Water Temperature in Brewing

Water temperature plays a crucial role in coffee brewing. Different brewing methods and coffee types require specific water temperatures to achieve the optimal extraction of flavours and aromas from the coffee grounds.

Grind Size for Brewing

Grind size refers to the coarseness or fineness of the coffee grounds used for brewing. It affects the rate of extraction and contact time with water, influencing the flavour, body, and strength of the brewed coffee.

Extraction Time

Extraction time refers to the duration of contact between water and coffee grounds during brewing. It is an essential factor in achieving the desired flavour balance, as under- or over-extraction can result in a less enjoyable cup of coffee.

Bloom in Coffee Brewing

The bloom is a crucial step in pour-over and immersion brewing methods. It involves wetting the coffee grounds with a small amount of water and allowing them to degas and release trapped carbon dioxide before the main brewing process.

Coffee Dosing

Coffee dosing refers to the amount of coffee grounds used when preparing coffee. It can be measured by weight or volume and impacts the strength and flavour of the brewed coffee, ensuring consistency in the brewing process.

Tamping in Espresso

Tamping is the act of compacting the coffee grounds in the espresso machine's portafilter before brewing. It ensures an even distribution of coffee, promotes water flow, and helps create a uniform extraction for a well-balanced shot.

Coffee Filters

Coffee filters are used to separate the brewed coffee from the coffee grounds. They come in various forms, such as paper, metal, cloth, or mesh, and serve to trap the grounds while allowing the liquid coffee to pass through.

Coffee Extraction Methods

Coffee extraction methods are the techniques used to extract flavours, oils, and compounds from coffee grounds during brewing. Different methods, such as pour-over, immersion, or espresso, yield distinct flavour profiles and characteristics.

Cold Drip Brewing

Cold drip brewing, also known as slow drip or Kyoto-style brewing, involves a slow and controlled process where cold water drips through a bed of coffee grounds over several hours, resulting in a smooth, concentrated coffee extract.

Japanese Iced Coffee

Japanese iced coffee is a brewing method that involves brewing coffee with hot water directly onto ice, rapidly cooling the coffee and preserving its aromatics. It produces a flavourful and refreshing iced coffee with pronounced flavours.

Nitro Cold Brew

Nitro cold brew is a type of cold brew coffee infused with nitrogen gas, creating a creamy texture and a cascading effect similar to draft beer. It results in a smooth and velvety coffee with a rich flavour and a frothy crema-like head.

Single-Serve Brewing

Single-serve brewing refers to brewing methods and devices that brew a single portion of coffee, typically in pre-packaged pods or capsules. It offers convenience and consistency while minimizing the need for manual measurement or grinding.

Instant Coffee

Instant coffee is a quick and convenient form of coffee made by freeze-drying or spray-drying brewed coffee, resulting in soluble coffee granules. It dissolves in hot water and provides a fast and easy way to prepare a cup of coffee.

Decaffeination Methods

Decaffeination methods are used to remove caffeine from coffee beans while preserving their flavour and aroma. Common methods include solvent-based processes, carbon dioxide extraction, or water-based methods.

Coffee Quality Control

Coffee quality control refers to the processes and procedures implemented to ensure the coffee's consistency, taste, and overall quality. It involves sensory evaluation, cupping, and adherence to industry standards and certifications.

Coffee Roaster

A coffee roaster is a machine used to roast coffee beans, applying heat to transform green coffee beans into flavourful, aromatic, and ready-to-brew coffee. Roasters vary in size, capacity, and technology to achieve desired roast profiles.

Coffee Grinder

A coffee grinder is a tool used to grind whole coffee beans into consistent particle sizes suitable for brewing. Grinders can be manual or electric and offer different grind settings to accommodate various brewing methods and preferences.

Espresso Grinder

An espresso grinder is a specialized coffee grinder designed specifically for grinding coffee beans for espresso brewing. It provides precise grind size adjustment and consistency to achieve optimal espresso extraction and flavour.

Coffee Brewing Equipment

Coffee brewing equipment encompasses various tools, machines, and devices used to brew coffee, such as coffee makers, espresso machines, grinders, filters, scales, and brewing vessels. The choice of equipment affects the brewing process and results.

Storing Coffee

Coffee storage is the practice of properly storing roasted coffee to maintain its freshness, flavour, and aroma. Factors such as air, light, heat, and moisture can impact the coffee's quality, necessitating proper storage containers and conditions.

Packaging Coffee

Coffee packaging involves the process of packaging roasted coffee beans or ground coffee to ensure freshness and extend shelf life. Packaging materials and methods should provide protection against oxygen, light, moisture, and aroma loss.

Direct Trade Importing

Direct trade importing refers to the practice of coffee buyers establishing direct relationships with coffee producers and purchasing coffee directly from them, cutting out middlemen. It aims to foster transparency and mutually beneficial partnerships.

Coffee Supply Chain

The coffee supply chain encompasses all the stages and activities involved in bringing coffee from the farm to the consumer. It includes cultivation, harvesting, processing, exporting, importing, roasting, and distribution of coffee.

Green Coffee Importing

Green coffee importing involves the process of importing unroasted coffee beans from coffee-producing countries. It requires compliance with import regulations, quality assessment, and logistics coordination to ensure timely delivery.

Import Regulations

Coffee import regulations are the laws and regulations governing the importation of coffee beans or products into a particular country or region. These regulations ensure quality, safety, and adherence to trade standards and certifications.

Quality Standards

Coffee quality standards establish criteria and guidelines to assess the quality, sensory attributes, and cupping scores of coffee. They serve as benchmarks for coffee evaluation, classification, grading, and certification processes.

Coffee Auctions

Coffee auctions are events or platforms where coffee producers and buyers come together to trade coffee through competitive bidding. Auctions can determine prices, showcase specialty coffees, and facilitate direct relationships between producers and buyers.


Coffee certification programs, such as Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, or organic certifications, provide assurance that specific social, environmental, and economic standards are met during the coffee production and trade process.

Fair Trade Certification

Fair Trade certification ensures that coffee is produced and traded under fair and sustainable conditions. It aims to promote better prices, working conditions, and environmental practices for coffee farmers and their communities.

Rainforest Alliance

Rainforest Alliance certification focuses on sustainable farming practices and the conservation of biodiversity. Coffee bearing the Rainforest Alliance seal signifies adherence to environmental and social standards throughout the supply chain.

UTZ Certification

UTZ certification promotes sustainable farming and responsible sourcing of coffee. It emphasizes ethical practices, environmental stewardship, and improved livelihoods for farmers, along with traceability and transparency in the supply chain.

Organic Certification

Organic certification ensures that coffee is grown and processed following organic farming practices without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. It certifies the coffee's organic origin and environmentally friendly production.

Specialty Coffee Association (SCA)

The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting specialty coffee worldwide. It provides education, research, events, and certifications related to coffee quality, sustainability, and industry standards.

World Coffee Research (WCR)

World Coffee Research (WCR) is a global non-profit research organization focused on scientific research and innovation in the coffee sector. It addresses challenges such as coffee diseases, climate change, sustainability, and coffee quality improvement.


Coffee sustainability encompasses practices and initiatives aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of the coffee industry, including environmental stewardship, social responsibility, economic fairness, and resilience to climate change.

Coffee Economics

Coffee economics involves the study of the economic aspects of the coffee industry, including supply and demand dynamics, pricing mechanisms, market trends, trade policies, and the socio-economic impacts on coffee-producing regions.


Coffee trading involves the buying and selling of coffee beans or products, usually conducted through commodity exchanges or direct trade. It encompasses price negotiations, contracts, logistics, and the global movement of coffee between buyers and sellers.

Coffee Contracts

Coffee contracts are legal agreements between coffee buyers and sellers that outline the terms, conditions, and specifications of the coffee transaction. They establish the price, quantity, quality, delivery, and other relevant aspects of the trade.

Freight Forwarding

Freight forwarding in the coffee industry refers to the coordination and management of the transportation of coffee beans or products from the origin to the destination. It involves logistics, shipping, customs documentation, and cargo handling.

Customs Clearance

Customs clearance is the process of complying with customs regulations and obtaining the necessary approvals and documentation for the import or export of coffee. It ensures legal compliance and smooth movement of coffee across borders.


Coffee warehousing involves the storage and management of coffee beans or products in specialized facilities or warehouses. It ensures proper inventory management, quality control, and preservation of coffee before distribution or export.

Coffee Quality Control Labs

Coffee quality control labs are facilities equipped with specialized equipment and trained professionals to assess the quality, taste, and sensory attributes of coffee. They conduct cupping, analysis, and quality assurance processes.

Roastery Visits

Coffee roastery visits provide opportunities for coffee enthusiasts, professionals, or consumers to visit coffee roasting facilities and gain insights into the roasting process, coffee profiles, and the craft of specialty coffee production.


Coffee education involves formal or informal programs, courses, workshops, or certifications that provide knowledge and training on various aspects of coffee, including cultivation, roasting, brewing, sensory evaluation, and industry practices.

Industry Trends

Coffee industry trends refer to the current and emerging patterns, developments, and shifts in the coffee sector. These trends can include changes in consumer preferences, market dynamics, sustainability practices, technology, and innovation.


Coffee entrepreneurship involves starting and operating a business within the coffee industry. It encompasses coffee shop ownership, specialty coffee roasting, coffee equipment manufacturing, online coffee sales, or coffee consulting services.